**TABLE OF CONTENTS**

**Definition of excel****Uses of excel****Users of excel****Features of excel environment****Entries: Constant and Formula entries****Fill handle****Extra columns/rows, & work sheet****Transpose****Chart presentation**

**DEFINITION OF MS. EXCEL: Ms. Excel is a spreadsheet application or software that is use for financial management. It consists of rows which stretch across the screen horizontally and columns that divide the screen vertically. Or is a program that is use for mathematical calculation.**

**SPREADSHEET: Spreadsheet is a group names for software that is used for financial management. It is called spread sheet because of the line and the line is gridlines. And grid line is any line that is invisible. Or**

**Is a group of cells that make up a range.**

**Cells: is the smallest unit of a spreadsheet.**

**HOW TO OPEN MICROSOFT EXCEL **

**Boot the computer on****Click on the start button****Move your mouse to all programs****Click on Microsoft office****Click on Microsoft excel**

**USES OF MICROSOFT EXCEL**

**It is used for mathematical calculation****It is used for financial calculation****It is used for statistical calculation****It is used for project analysis****It is used for data and chart presentation**

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**USERS OF MICROSOFT EXCEL**

**Bankers****Cashers****Accountants**

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**FEATURES OF MICROSOFT EXCEL ENVIRONMENT**

**These are the bars & button that make up the excel environment.**

**TITLE BAR: This is the first line of the excel screen that display the name of the current file you are working on. Contains minimize, maximize and close button.**

**THE MENU BAR: This is the bar on a excel screen that contain the list of items like home, insert, page layout, formula data etc. and under each menu will have other items on them.**

**THE FORMULA BAR: It displays the contents of the active cell & anything you type in MS-Excel spreadsheet will first appear at the formula bar: it will then be accepted or rejected and any formulas you use in excel calculation will definitely appear at the formula bar.**

**THE NAME BOX: it displays the active cells.**

**CELL REFERENCE: It is a combination of column letters and rows numbers.**

**WORK SHEET: This is the working area of excel screen, it consist of columns and rows: The columns are represented with (A-XFD), while the rows are represented with figures (1-10,48576) Rows**

**CELL POINTER: This is the rectangular box that appears on the cell. It identifies the active cell**

**FILL HANDLE: This is the small box that appear at the lower right concern of active cell, it is used to duplicate figure or text**

**SCROLL BAR: This contains of two small scroll bars: the vertical one and the horizontal one. They are used to view the entire screen of the page.**

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**SOME OF THE KEYS THAT MAKES EXCEL ENVIRONMENT UNIQUE**

**MERGE & CENTER: It is used to center a title within a range****CURRENCY STYLE: It is used to add a currency or dollars sign****PERCENTAGE STYLE: It is used to add a percentage in a calculation****COMMA STYLE: It is used to add comma to numbers that are confusable to recognize. It can sometime be called 1000separator**

**INCREASE AND DECREASE DECIMAL: It is used to increase or decrease decimal point**

**MATHEMATICAL OPERATORS: These are signs or symbols use in mathematical calculation**

**EXAMPLES:**

**Addition +****Subtraction -****Multiplication *****Division /****Exponential or raise to power ^****Greater than >****Less than <****Greater than & equal to >=****less than & equal to <=****Equality sign =**

**CHART: It is a graphic representation of a cell data. Or is summary of calculation or work done. They are two categories of chart**

**STANDARD TYPES****CUSTOM TYPES**

**STANDARD TYPES INCLUDES**

**Column charts****Bar charts****Pie charts****XY (scatter) charts****Area charts****Doughnut charts****Ladder charts**

**CUSTOM TYPE OF CHARTS INCLUDES**

**Area blocks****B & W area****B & column****B & W line – Timescale****B & W pie****Blue pie****Colored lines**

**MS EXCEL PRACTICAL**

**HOW TO CENTER A TEXT ON M.S EXCEL**

**Highlight from A down to K or any letter****Click on home****Click on merge and center one after the other**

**HOW TO APPLY CURRENCY STYLE TO A FIGURE**

**Highlight the figure****Click on home****Click on currency style**

**HOW TO APPLY A PERCENTAGE STYLE **

**Highlight the figure****Click on home****Click on comma**

**HOW TO INCREASE OR DECREASE DECIMAL POINT**

**Highlight the figure****click on home****Click on increase or decrease decimal point**

**HOW TO INSERT EXTRA WORK SHEET**

**Click on home****click on insert****Click on insert sheet****Or go to sheet bar, click on insert worksheet**

**TRANSPOSE: It is used to put a text that is vertical changed to horizontal aligned**

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**STEPS:**

**Highlight the text you wish to align****click on home****Click on copy, then highlight the area you want align it****click on paste****Click on paste special****Click on transpose****click on ok**

**HOW TO INCREASE THE WIDTH OF A COLUMN AND THE HEIGHT OF A ROW**

**By manual process****By automatic process**

**MANUAL PROCESS: Click on the edge of the grid lines and drag to a direction of your choice**

**AUTOMATIC PROCESS: Right click on the edge of the row or column grid line then click on width or height and type in the width or height and then ok**

**STATISTICAL FUNCTION**

**These are the signs or symbols use in excel calculation**

**EXAMPLES**

**1. SUM: It is used to find the total in the range of numbers**

**HOW TO USE YOUR SUM FORMULA**

**=SUM (click on the first number and drag to number) press enter**

**SUM (click on the first number and plus (+) or subtract () and click on the second number, plus (I) and third number etc) then press your enter key.**

**2. MAX: It is used to find the highest value in a set of numbers**

**HOW TO USE YOUR MAX**

**=MAX (click on the first drag to last number) press enter key**

**MIN: It is use for finding the smallest or the lowest value in a set of numbers**

**HOW TO USE YOUR MIN**

**= MIN (click on the first drag to the last number) press enter key**

**STDEV: It is used to find the standard deviation in a range of numbers**

**HOW TO FIND STANDARD DEVIATION IN A RANGE OF NUMBERS**

**= STDEV: (click on first number drag to the last number) press enter key**

**VARIANCE: It is use to find the variance in a range of numbers**

**HOW TO FIND VARIANCE IN A RANGE OF NUMBERS (VAR)**

**=VAR (click on the first number drag to the last number) press enter key.**

**COUNT: It is use to count the actual number that makes up a range**

**HOW TO COUNT **

**= COUNT (click on the first number drag to the last number ) press enter key.**

**AVERAGE: It is use to find the mean values in the range of numbers**

**HOW TO FIND AVERAGE:**

**= AVERAGE (click on the first number drag to the last numbers press enter key**

**SQRT: It is use to find the square root of a number**

**HOW TO FIND SQUARE ROOT OF A RANGE OF NUMBERS (SQRT)**

**Add the number with your sum formula: then anything you find as your answer, use it to find your square root.**

**= SQRT (click on the Total Answer) press enter key**

**The same thing with LOG, which is use to find the logarithm of a number**

**=Logs (click on the Total Answer) press enter key**

**ROUND: It is used to convert a number to any decimal point**

**Example: to convert this a number use**

**= Round (click on the number then apply your comma sign then type in the decimal number you need e.g 3 or 2 decimal point then) press enter on your key board.**

**HOW CALCULATE STUDENT REMARK ON EXCEL**

**Note: the formula to use is = if (C7>60,”pass” “Good”)**

**Then press enter on your key board**

**HOW TO CREATE A BOARDER OR TABLE**

**highlight the numbers of columns and rows you counted****Click on home****Click on format****Click on format cell****Click on boarder****Go to line style****Click on the thick line****Click on inside and outline****Click on ok**

**HOW TO APPLY ALIGNMENT OT YOUR BOARDER**

**Highlight the area you want to apply alignment****Click on home****Click on format****Click on format cell****Click on alignment****Go to orientation and click on 90 or the decree of your choice****Click on ok**

**HOW TO DELETE A BOARDER**

**Highlight the are you want to delete either column or row****Click on home****Click on format****Click on format cell****Click on boarder****Click on none****click on ok.**

**HOW TO REMOVE ALIGNMENT**

**Highlight the boarder you want to remove alignment****Click on home****Click on format****Click on format cell****Click on alignment and type in O decree****Then click on ok**

**HOW TO SORT FILE OR DATA**

**There are two ways of sorting file or data**

**ASSENDING ORDER: Means arranging a data from A-Z.****DESCENDING ORDER: Means arranging a data from Z-A.**

**HOW TO SORT FILE OR DATA**

**Highlight the text****Go to home****Click on sort &filters****Click on sort A to Z or****Click on sort Z to A**

**FIRST CHAT**

**HOW TO PLOT A CHART**

**Highlight the two columns that carries the information of which you want to use and plot the chart (highlight the first one then hold your control key to be able to highlight the second and simultaneously)****Click on insert****Click on pie chart****Choose the one of your choice****Click on layout****Click on chart title****Click on above chart****Then type the title of the chart (eg. Monthly salary of a company)****Click on data labels****Click on outside end****N/B: to change the location of the chart****click on design****click on move chart****click on as new sheet****click on ok****choose a new sheet****Then apply colors to the figures and names & bold.**

**HOW TO APPLY BACKGROUND**

**Click on the chart area**

**Click on format**

**Click on shape fill**

**Click on texture**

**Choose the background of your choice**

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**2 ^{nd} CHART**

**HOW TO PLOT A COLUMN CHART**

**Highlight the information you are ask to use and plot the chart****Click on insert****Click on column chart****Choose any chart of your choice****Click on layout****Click on chart title****click on above chart****Give your chart a title name (Students Record)****Click on data labels****Click on outside end****Click on gridline****Click on primary horizontal gridline****Click on none****Click on axis title****click on primary horizontal axis title****click on title below axis****then type (Students Names)****Click on axis title****click on primary vertical axis title****Click on vertical title****Then type (Students Scores)****Click on design****click on move chart****click on new sheet.****Then apply colors to the names, figures and title.****Apply background**

**HOW TO CALCULATE ON GRAPH**

**Note that your X-value will be giving to you and if you are ask to find Y, the formula for Y will be giving Example: y=3*X+2**

**Note after typing the formula giving to 10y by y, and any where you sees X you need to click on any of the column number of X**

X |
-2 |
-1 |
0 |
1 |
2 |
3 |
4 |
5 |

Y |

**HOW TO PLOT A GRAPH**

**Highlight the X&Y border****Click on insert****Click on scatter****Choose the graph of your choice****Click on layout****Click on chart title****Click on above chart****Click on title and type in the Name of the Graph****click on data labels****Choose the direction of your choice eg. (Right direction)****Click on Gridlines****Click on primary horizontal gridlines****click on none****N/B: to change the location of the graph****click on design****click on move chart****click on as new sheet****click on ok****Apply colors to the figures & title & bold**

**HOW TO APPLY GRAPH BACKGROUND**

**Click on the graph area****Click on format****Click on shape fill****click on texture****choose the texture of your choice**